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The Sunk Cost Fallacy which means continuing a bad strategy just because so much had already been invested in an initiative doomed to failure. Donald Trump utilized this fallacy to argue for open ended military operations in Afghanistan. About 13, a Middle Ground Fallacy example is the appeal of the American Elite classes political, corporate, MSM to seek "moderate" solutions to systemic dysfunction in the U. Because the warped machinery that they have created and sustain is how they extract wealth. MGF is essentially an appeal to the status quo. Donald Trump was elected because a large percentage of the electorate rejects the incremental change implied by the MGF.

Regardless of what one thinks of Trump, MGF solutions to those systemic problems almost guarantee an eventual collapse in every dimension. A properly functioning MSM would be challenging American Elites who utilize any and all of the logical fallacies to rationalize their strategies and decisions that are obviously wrong.

Too bad the American MSM is tightly bound to the other Elite classes, so does not pose those challenges. The interesting question is whether American Power Elites actually believe that MG solutions would work or if they are content at parasitically extract the remaining wealth from what they know to be a dying carcass. What does that mean?

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If means that when someone on the Right makes a dire prediction, liberal will usually reply, "Don't be ridiculous - that will never, ever happen. And boy do you bastards deserve what you're going to get!

A few years back, religious conservatives argued "If gay marriage is legalized, before long the government will punish schools and churches that don't endorse gay rights. And when it does, the same liberals who insisted it was impossible will laugh and say, "Hell yes it happened, and it serves you bigots right. Christopher Dwyer, Ph.


Why is the Slippery Slope Argument perceived as fallacious? Back Psychology Today. Back Find a Therapist. Back Get Help. Back Magazine. Subscribe Issue Archive. Back Today. Consider Sleep and Screen Time. Inflammation and the 3 Paths of Depression in Older Adults. Christopher Dwyer Ph. Follow me on Twitter.

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References Darling-Hammond, L. Kahneman, D. Thinking, fast and slow. UK: Penguin. Thank you for the post. Related to 11, something we hear from the gun fanatics in the US: Nazi Germany had gun control. Therefore, gun control leads to Nazi Germany.

Thou shalt not commit logical fallacies

Cause and effect are not interchangeable! Logic never works on fanatics. How do we improve critical thinking? Submitted by Nick Byrd on August 25, - am.

Fake News: Common Logical Fallacies

Hi Chris, I'm reading your book now. Great stuff! I wish you well! Evidence may eventually support a link, however concurrence is not enough to prove the conclusion. It must be because it's so much colder today than the last few days. This fallacy occurs when an opponent attacks an exaggerated version of your argument rather than your actual argument.

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Person 1: "I believe hunting for sport is immoral. Even though an argument has failed, there may still one that succeeds. Person 1: "I'm wearing a cape, so I'm going to jump off the roof. Similar to the previous, this fallacy is an overt attempt to disrupt an opponent's argument by introducing a counter argument that isn't strictly related to the original.

Person 1: "More tax money should be used to build homeless shelters. The naturalistic fallacy is an attempt to draw a conclusion from a statement of fact. It is important to realize two things about fallacies: first, fallacious arguments are very, very common and can be quite persuasive, at least to the casual reader or listener.

You can find dozens of examples of fallacious reasoning in newspapers, advertisements, and other sources. Second, it is sometimes hard to evaluate whether an argument is fallacious. An argument might be very weak, somewhat weak, somewhat strong, or very strong. An argument that has several stages or parts might have some strong sections and some weak ones. For each fallacy listed, there is a definition or explanation, an example, and a tip on how to avoid committing the fallacy in your own arguments.

Definition: Making assumptions about a whole group or range of cases based on a sample that is inadequate usually because it is atypical or too small. All philosophy classes must be hard! If so, consider whether you need more evidence, or perhaps a less sweeping conclusion. Definition: The premises of an argument do support a particular conclusion—but not the conclusion that the arguer actually draws.

Right now, the punishment for drunk driving may simply be a fine. But drunk driving is a very serious crime that can kill innocent people. So the death penalty should be the punishment for drunk driving.


Tip: Separate your premises from your conclusion. Looking at the premises, ask yourself what conclusion an objective person would reach after reading them. Jones is responsible for the rise in crime. Tip: To avoid the post hoc fallacy, the arguer would need to give us some explanation of the process by which the tax increase is supposed to have produced higher crime rates.

Soon our society will become a battlefield in which everyone constantly fears for their lives. It will be the end of civilization. To prevent this terrible consequence, we should make animal experimentation illegal right now.