The operatio n was completed by January Both regulations require as a condition for deployment, that Soldiers attain oral health level as indexed by the dental fitness class that lowe rs the risk of dental emergency for at least a year. A coalition force of approximately 20 nations lead by the US was immediatel y organized to liberate Kuwait. Army dental support continued for a year past the end of the conflict, until February The main body followed within the next few weeks. Dental Activities expanded for dental processing during mobilization and deployment.
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Reserve and National Guard personnel were found to have a much greater requirement for dental r eadiness procedures than active duty Soldiers. The active duty Dental Corps numbered 1, officers. They included the 2d Medical Detachment AI for command and control and the 87th, l22d, and d Medical Detachments HA for area support dental services. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons accompanied Army hospitals, and maneuver units had their organic unit dental support. During this phase, dent al support provided care to sust ain the oral health of the force.
Army dental elements moved with troops to treat dental emergencies and provide dental sustaining care to Soldiers while waiting for the ground war to start. Dental care was provided to treat dental emergencies, treat oral and maxillofacial combat casualties, and perform alternate wartime roles. Emergency dental care was also provided to civilian refugees and enemy prisoners of war. During the phased withdrawal of supported units dental units were also redeployed. The last dental unit to withdraw was the d Med Det, remaining until February to support residual security and redeployment personnel.
Five reserve dental units and a number of Individual Mobilization Augmentees IMA were activated to help with the massive dental workload brought on by reserve force mobilization.
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This period also saw the stateside dental capability depleted by deployment of active duty dental personnel. In the KTO, by the time of peak US Army activity in February , , Soldiers were being suppor ted by 25 oral and maxillofacial surgeons, 96 other dental officers, and dental enlisted personnel.
US military planners quickly began actions to draw down the size of the force in Europe, as well as to downsize the US military forces worldwide. Downsizing and restructuring the dental organization became the main trends of the early s. Other officers were offered severance bonuses and partial retirement benefits for early separation or retirement. Fortunately, involuntary reduction in force RIF measures were not needed. Other HA detachments converted to the new force structure over the next several years. Immediately following the devastating impact of Hurricane Andrew on August, the th Medical Detachment DS , and dental elements of the 82d Airborne and 10th Mountain Divisions carried out a textbook example of effective domestic support activities to help the civilian dental community reestablish dental services to the affected area.
US troops were deployed to the east African country of Somalia to provide security for international hum anitarian famine relief organizations against conditions of anarchy and armed gangs. Marines and 10th Mountain Division members made up a force of about 21, Army dental support was provided by 11 dental officers and the supporting dental assistants. These personnel were split between 2 periods of rotation. See also 30 June entry.
Tempel to the position of Deputy Surgeon General. Through the Medical Force restructuring initiative, the 93d replaced the 2d Medical Detachme nt AI as the dental comm and and control headquarters for designated dental companies in Europe.
CO L later major general Patrick D. On 2 October , provisional status was removed. This action established Army dental service delivery under a dental command with worldwide authority over all TDA dental units. This organization was transitional to one officially adopted on 1 June See entry for 1 June On 18 July BG Cuddy was frocked with rank of major general. Actual DC strength was 1, officers. In early , war broke out between Serbs and ethnic Albanians living in the Serbian province of Kosovo. The creation of one Center of Excellence for dental laboratory services allowed consolidation of the dental laboratory mission at Fort Gordon.
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This business decision was driven by post-cold war downsizing, better capability to manage case transportation and communica tions, and improved efficiency through technology at Fort Gordon. Actual DC strength was MG Patrick D. Webb, Jr. Prior to this Dent al Corps officers only competed with other dental officers for star positions.
See entry for 20 March concerning deployment to OIF. The changes include d: Ft. Army dental personnel from the Pentagon dental clinic assisted in evacuation, triage and emergency care of over 90 Pentagon wounded. Dental personnel from the Walter Reed dental clinic were also involv ed in the triage and treatment of wounded evacuated to Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Rumsfeld announced that the war against terrorism outside the United States would be known as Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation Noble Eagle would designate US military operations in homeland defense and civil support to US federal, state and local agencies.
Identification was accomplished through various means includin g matching antemortem dental records, fingerprints, bone analysis and DNA comparisons. Despite the closure of the Central Panograph Storage Facility in Monterey, California, panographs of many military victims were still on file at the facility.
With commercial planes grounded, the Department of Defense dispatched these dental records cross-country by mi litary aircraft. Panographs again proved to be a valuable comparison tool for making positive victim identification. Having identified the Al Qaida terrorist organization as responsible for the September11 attack, the US launched an offensive against this group and the extremist Taliban government of Afghanistan that harbored them.
Dental support to OEF further taxed Army dental resources already spread thin by other worldwide requirements. These Expanded Function Dental Assistants EFDA were selected from currently employed civilian dental assistants and provided advanced training, allowing them to perform reversible dental restorative and dental hygiene procedures.
See also 27 March entry concerning DTA, an earlier program to establish a dental personnel type with expanded function. Actual DC strength was , with budgeted end strength of Bush first supported diplomacy through the United Nations, and also prepared for milita ry operations in Iraq.
In all, over , active and reserve Army forces were screened and treated for duty in Iraq and Kuwait. Dental officers were activated for day rotations, with 30 eventually extending beyond their initial day call-up. In all, 17 IMAs activated for 90day rotations, with 2 extending voluntarily beyond the initial 90 days. Bush gave the order to liberate Iraq from its corrupt dictator, Saddam Hussein, and his oppressive regime. In addition to dental support from dental personnel organic to deployed tactical units, Medical Companies area support dental services were also deployed.
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Czerw, provided dent al command and control to most of the dental companies in theater. Although it was designated as a medical battalion dental service , like th e AI detachment was in earlier operations, the 93rd was task organized to also provide command and control to subordinate units with functions other than dental. Two AC units, nd and the st Medical Companies Denta l Service remained in theater to provide area dental support after the redeployment of the 2 units with RC personnel, the rd and the th.
Later other Med Co DS rotated into and out of Iraq to provide dental support to the stabilization phase of th e Iraq war. Dental officer recruitment and retention rates were severely and negatively affected by the overwhelming burden of dental school educational debt. The program provided payment of educational loans tied to securing a dental degree.
Officers eligible for participation in this program must have between 18 months and 14 years of service as of 31 January Silver man became the first dentist to command medical operations in a theater of combat operations. The 3 mi litary dental research units are collocated in a new 25, square foot facility, the Battlefield H ealth and Trauma Research Institute. Bliss, Texas. A transitional force of 50, troops remained, down from the peak of , in Jeffcott GF.
Hyson JM. Accessed October 15, He continues active interest in promoting the use of history as an aid to management. Unique requirements of military dental care include, but are not limited to, a high degree of mobility and ability to set-up quickly. This photo from World War I shows one of many ways Army dental officers adapted civilian dental equipment, Army-designed field dental equipment, and standard military vehicles for these capabilities.
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This technology would enable a dentist to complete one or multiple ceramic restorations inlays, onlays, veneers, and full crowns chairside in a single appoin tment. The concept that a machine-milled ceramic restoration could be fabricated chairside with the benefit of only one dental visit was revolutionary for restorative dentistry.
Even so, the idea was initially met with skepticism among pr acticing dentists, raising questions on the viability of its future acceptance. Through continuous research and development, there have been significant hardware and software changes to the original CEREC system Figure 1. The separation of the milling chamber from the image capture and design hardware led to a significant improvement in clinical efficiency by allowing simultaneous design of one restoration while milling a second one.
Form grinding of dental ceramics milling units changed from a less precise diamond grinding wheel, which required more clinical adjustment, to a more precise 2-bur system in with a reduced diameter at the tips allowing for a more optimal internal and external detail of the ceramic restoration. The 3D design also allowed better work flow, and software tools enabled manipulation of the digital partial or full crown anatomy to the preparation, adjustment of the proximal contacts, and the ability to adjust the occlusion with the introduction of the antagonist tool to the opposing tooth contacts.
In , Mehl and Blanz2 introduced a biogeneric model software database for inlays, onlays, and partial crowns. CEREC history: 1. Prototype 2. CEREC 1, inlays, veneers 3. CEREC 2, onlays, crowns 4. The biogeneric dynamic database, according to their research, looked at hundreds of caries-free and wear-free teeth as they scanned each individual tooth. The scans were completed at ,point resolution per occlusal surface, capturing detailed anatomy.
Using this database, average tooth characteristics were determined that encompass the statistical median of the population.