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As a net result, results obtained are often divergent and contradictory. When discussing about osteoinduction it is important to properly define the terminology related to the induction of bone formation [ 5 , 10 - 13 ]. A protein labelled as osteoinductive must thus be endowed with the striking prerogative of initiating endochondral bone formation in heterotopic extraskeletal sites of animal models [ 21 , 28 , 36 ].

The heterotopic implantation site avoids the ambiguities of the orthotopic site where some degree of bone formation by conduction may occur from the viable bone interfaces [ 5 , 10 , 36 ] particularly when using osteophilic porous substrata or smart biomimetic matrices [ 21 , 23 , 63 ] as bone repair materials. In addition, the presence of multiple molecular forms raises the biological significance of this apparent redundancy and indicates functional interactions and synergistic activities during both embryonic bone development and bone regeneration in postnatal life.

The induction of bone formation in postnatal life recapitulates embryonic development that can be exploited as a template for regenerative medicine [ 21 , 23 ]. The presence of multiple molecular forms with bone inductive activity points to synergistic interactions during endochondral bone formation [ 28 ]. The binary application of selected morphogens recapitulating embryonic development as shown by the induction of organized pseudoepiphyseal structures in the rectus abdominis muscle of adult Papio ursinus [ 5 , 25 ] is the osteogenic drive for the induction of bone formation in clinical contexts.

Thirty days after heterotopic implantation, generated ossicles could be harvested and prepared fragments transplanted into bony defects in an autogenous fashion to treat defects of either the axial and craniofacial skeletons including periodontal osseous defects [ 68 ]. The rapidity of tissue morphogenesis and the induction of bone formation complete with mineralization of the outer cortex of the ossicles and bone marrow formation by day 30 is of particular importance for repair and regeneration of bone in the elderly, where repair phenomena are temporally delayed and healing progresses slower than in younger patients [ 21 , 25 ].

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Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Introduction Reconstruction of large craniofacial and appendicular skeletal defects in humans requires the harvesting of living autogenous bone from a distant donor site, most often the iliac crest [ 1 ].

ICBM, insoluble collagenous bone matrix; ramcs, rectus abdominis cells. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.

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Tissue harvest, histology and histomorphometry Anaesthetized animals were killed with an intravenous overdose of sodium pentobarbitone on day 12, 20, 30 and 90, two, three or four animals per time period Table 1. Statistical analyses Histomorphometric data of heterotopic and orthotopic tissue sections were analysed using Graph Pad Prism software with one way analysis of variance procedure using Bonferroni's multiple comparison test and are presented in Tables 3 and 4.

Lyophilized pellets were implanted in the rectus abdominis muscle of the baboon. Specimens were harvested on day 30 after implantation and processed for undecalcified histology. Bone refers to mineralized bone md bone plus osteoid. After mixing with sterile spatulas, treated collagenous matrices were implanted in calvarial defects of the baboon. Specimens were harvested on day 20, 30 and 90 after implantation and processed for undecalcified histology.

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    Induction of Bone Formation in Primates by Ugo Ripamonti | Waterstones

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