In the third period, Joel, Obadiah and Jonah were subsequently added. Schneider, 'Book of the Twelve', p. Weimar, 'Der Schluss des Amos-Buches.
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Eine redaktionskritische Analyse', BN 27 , pp. The last stages in the redaction history of Obadiah and Amos were the work of the redactors of the Book of the Twelve or of some previous version. They added new texts to, among others, the books of Amos and Obadiah, in order to connect these books.
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Whereas Schneider's and Weimar's studies are essentially diachronically directed, P. House's book The Unity of the Twelve2 takes a synchronic approach. It illustrates that the Twelve can very well be read as one book, one literary work. It is possible to indicate in the Twelve, as House shows, the book's genre, structure, plot, characters, and point of view. In this, it does not differ from other literary works. In the present chapter, a synchronic survey will be given of the connections Obadiah appears to have with Joel section 2 and Amos section 3 , and with both of them section 4.
The diachronic implications of these links will be considered in Chapters 5 and 6. Joel There is a great similarity in subject matter between Obadiah and Joel, particularly between Obad. As with Obad. On this day, as in Obadiah, 'the nations' in general are judged Joel 4. Nevertheless, just as in Obadiah, one group in particular is called to account: 'Tyre and Sidon, and all the regions of Philistia' Joel 4.
Both Obadiah and Joel 4 contain a complaint against the neighbouring nations because of their behaviour at the time of Judah's defeat Obad. Weimar 'Obadja', pp. One of the accusations within Joel 4. Likewise, in Obad. The idea that the nations profiting from Israel's misery will suffer what they have made Israel suffer, occurs in both Joel and Obadiah. A detailed comparison of this text with its parallels in Joel will be given below, in Chapter 5.
One striking example outside w. The same expression is found in Joel 4. It is used in only one other text Nah.
Egypt shall become a desolation rotf and Edom a desolate wilderness noDtf ino , for the violence done to the people of Judah because they have shed innocent blood in their land 4. As in many of the other oracles against Edom, it is announced that Edom's land will become 'desolate'. In contrast to these oracles, Edom 1. Joel 4. According to 4. Obadiah explicitly states: 'As you have done, it shall be done to you, your deed shall return on your own head' v. See S. In my view, the similarity Bergler Joel als Schriftinterpret, pp.
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The 'summons to war' found in these verses occurs in many other places cf. As will be argued in Chapter 4, Jeremiah seems to have been a source for Obadiah, and it may have been so for Joel too.
Bergler's view p. Furthermore, his view depends on an unnecessary and unlikely emendation in Obad. Obadiah as a Part of the Book of the Twelve 35 is accompanied by another nation, Egypt. The two nations are punished for their behaviour towards Judah. It is unclear to which event Egypt's 'violence' refers. As for Edom, similar accusations as in Joel 4.
In Ezek. The phrase 'for the violence' onnn is also used in Obad. There too it refers to Edomite actions against Judah.
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Egypt and Edom become a 'desolation', i. Judah's future is the opposite: 'the mountains shall drip sweet wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the streambed of Judah shall flow with water' v. Moreover, 'Judah shall be inhabited for ever, and Jerusalem to all generations' v. The vital water supply will be assured forever by the presence of a 'fountain' in the temple v. The meaning of the first part of v. The verb is related to the 'innocent' K'p] in v. In that case, v. The translation would be 'I will not let go unpunished their blood guilt, which I [, up till now,] have not let go unpunished'.
Others regard v. The sentence can be interpreted as a question plus an answer: 'Will I let their blood guilt go unpunished? I will not let it go unpunished'.
Chapter 5, section 2, for a discussion of the joint occurrence of Edom and Egypt in Joel 4. Van der Meer, 'Oude woorden worden nieuw.
De opbouw van 36 Edom, Israel's Brother and Antagonist this is quite an attractive solution, the more so because the same question plus answer are found in Jer. The verb in the 'answer' part of the sentence is a perfectum, so most probably we find here a statement about the past.
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There, YHWH will gather and judge the enemy nations 'in those days and at that time cf. The two sections 4. The difference is that the latter section is directed against the nations in general, while the former deals with two typical enemy nations.
Amos The book preceding Obadiah in the Twelve is Amos. There are some striking similarities between the two. The book of Amos opens with a series of oracles against the nations. One of them is directed against Edom Amos 1. As in Obadiah, Edom is condemned because of its violence against its 'brother' Israel. The last chapter of Amos— the one directly preceding the book of Obadiah—shows a great deal of correspondence with Obadiah.
In this section we shall have a closer look at Amos 1. Amos 1. Bergler, Joel als Schriftinterpret, pp. But cf. Wolff, Dodekapropheton 2.